by John Jung
Lo Kwok Fui, my father, used false identity papers to immigrate in 1921 from his Hoiping village in Guangdong, China, to the United States at the age of 20. He had hopes of earning a better living than possible in his impoverished village and sending money back to help his parents and brothers in China. Upon his arrival at the Angel Island Immigration Detention Center in San Francisco bay, his paper father, a Chinese merchant, came from Chinatown with two Caucasian witnesses to testify in support of his application to enter the U. S.
Once he passed this difficult hurdle, and assuming an American name, Frank Jung, because his "paper name" was Ben Jung, he headed directly to the Deep South where he joined his grand uncle to work in his laundry in Chattanooga, Tennessee, for about two years. Next, he moved to work for several years in Augusta, Georgia, where a cousin and his father had a laundry. During this time, he saved enough to invest $500 to become a "paper merchant" with other partners in a store. Although he never was an actual merchant, this status entitled him to eventually bring a wife to the U.S. In contrast, as a laundryman, he would have been classified as a laborer and been denied this right by the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
In 1927, my father returned to China for an arranged marriage, as was the custom, to Wai Choi. After a few months, he came back to the U. S. in 1928 with his bride, Quan Shee. During the immigration interrogation at Angel Island, he was confronted several times by the examiner who accused him of giving memorized answers because he changed his answers to several questions in 1928 in exactly the same way that he had modified his first answers to those questions in 1921. (An examination of the transcript showed that he stood his ground whenever confronted and replied that he was just telling the truth). The examiner also made a serious challenge of Quan Shee when she failed to recognize a photograph of her alleged paper father-in-law, someone whom she had supposedly been in daily contact with for several months.
Despite these harrowing challenges, they gained entry into the U. S. They went directly to Macon, Georgia, where they would be the only Chinese adults for the next 25 years. Over this time, Frank and Grace Jung operated the Sam Lee Laundry where they raised a family of 4 children and lived in quarters above their business.
Although cut off from contact with any other Chinese people, they managed somehow to endure with a somewhat fatalistic Chinese philosophy of ‘eating bitterness’ as they endured hardships of the depression of the 1930s and the war years of the 1940s. Laundry work was physically demanding, the hours were long, and during the hot, humid Georgia summers, the heat inside the laundry was stifling.
Only Sunday visits to Atlanta several times a year that took over 2 hours by train to visit a brother, or reciprocal visits to Macon from him, provided us with any social contact with other Chinese. On these visits my father would bring one or two of us. The trips were actually rather boring for us children, but they did give us a change of scenery for a day. We would sit and wait patiently while father and his brother would sit in his laundry and exchange information about other Chinese working in other parts of the Southor their families back in China. Sometimes they would visit some other Chinese bachelors in their laundries or at the On Leong Association Hall, and by then it was time to make the long train trip back to Macon in time for dinner. My mother rarely made these trips since there were no other Chinese women in Atlanta, save one, with whom she could socialize. Her life was even more isolated that that of her husband especially since she had no opportunity or time to learn to speak more than a few words of English. She would later recall that she sometimes felt she was forgetting how to even speak Chinese since father was the only adult Chinese in Macon with whom she could converse.
My parents managed to gain minimal information about national and world events that were relevant to Chinese by subscribing to a Chinese newspaper mailed from San Francisco. Whites and blacks in town viewed them, and our family, with curiosity and occasionally, condescension. Overall, they were accepted in public spaces, but they did not engage in any social contact with the community. Their children were permitted to enter white theaters and schools.
Interestingly, my father did not ever discuss his experiences with immigration barriers or racial prejudice with us whereas my mother went to great lengths to continually tell us about the unjust restrictions on Chinese immigration, the mistreatment and detention of Chinese at Angel Island, and the dangers of racial discrimination in the South. She complained bitterly about her Angel Island experiences where she was detained for over a month. As a child, I tended to think she must have been exaggerating but as an adult, I learned that she had been quite justified in her feelings.
Place of Origin
Place of Settlement